September 13th, 2011

Slovak president’s falsification of history fans flames of ethnic hatred

[Editor’s Note: The following is an op-ed piece by Frank Koszorus, Jr., a Washington, D.C. Attorney who currently serves as President of the American Hungarian Federation, was previously chair of the steering committee of the NATO Enlargement Working Group, and is a regular commentator and university lecturer on foreign policy, public diplomacy, human rights and minority rights issues. Politics.hu welcomes submissions for op-ed pieces pertaining to Hungary.]

Stalin, who in 1948 extended his empire to include Czechoslovakia, was a master of historical falsification, as best evidenced by his orders to blame the Germans, who were nowhere near the site, for the Katyn Forest massacre of Polish officers and other prisoners in 1940. The peoples of Central and Eastern Europe shook off their communist masters more than twenty years ago, which lead to the disintegration of the Soviet empire. Old practices like the falsification of the past and intolerance toward minorities, however, die hard, as events in Slovakia, a NATO and European Union member, recently demonstrated.

Ivan Gašparovič, President of Slovakia and a former prosecutor under the communist regime, resorted to this shameful practice when he recently labeled János Esterházy a follower of Hitler and fascism and opposed the unveiling of a sculpture in Esterházy’s memory in Košice (Hungarian: Kassa), a city close to Slovakia’s border with Hungary. Gašparovič’s statement is historically indefensible and serves to fan the flames of ethnic hatred and intolerant nationalism in Slovakia.

In 1938, Hungary regained part of Czechoslovakia inhabited predominantly by ethnic Hungarians. Fewer than 100,000 Hungarians remained in Slovakia, an ally and client state of Nazi Germany between 1939 and 1945.

Although Esterházy could have left Slovakia and taken a seat in Hungary’s parliament, he chose instead to stay to serve the small Hungarian community remaining in Slovakia as the head of the Hungarian Party. In that capacity, Esterházy opposed the Slovak Nazi puppet regime of Jozef Tiso. At great peril to himself, he was the only member of the Slovak Parliament to vote against the law authorizing the deportation of Jews in 1942. Later, Esterházy personally saved Jews from the Holocaust.

Not surprisingly Esterházy’s and his party’s anti-fascist stand did not sit well with the Nazis. He was pursued by the Gestapo and went into hiding, choosing once again to stay with his community in Slovakia instead of going into exile.

Immediately after the war in 1945, Esterházy was arrested on the orders of Gustáv Husák, a post-war communist leader of Czechoslovakia, for speaking out against the discriminatory anti-Hungarian measures introduced by the government. These measures, rooted in the anti-democratic concept of collective guilt, stripped ethnic Hungarians of their citizenship, virtually all of their rights, property (without compensation), dignity, and, in some cases, their lives. After being handed over to the KGB, Esterházy was convicted as a “war criminal” by a Soviet court.

In 1947, while Esterházy was imprisoned in the Soviet Union, the National Court in Slovakia in a perfunctory proceeding, and without any evidence, sentenced him to death in absentia on the trumped up charges of being a fascist and having contributed to the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. It is a cruel irony that Esterházy was wrongly accused of doing exactly what Slovakia would do on its own forty-six years later in the “Velvet Divorce” of 1993 – dissolving Czechoslovakia. Upon his return from Russia, Esterházy’s sentence was commuted to life in prison. He died in a Czechoslovak prison in 1957 and was buried in an undisclosed mass grave.

It was more than reasonable to expect Slovakia to exonerate Esterházy, an unsung hero of anti-Nazi resistance, after the demise of communism. Even Russia exonerated him on January 21, 1993, acknowledging that he had been “arrested without cause.” Astonishingly, however, Slovakia still refuses to exonerate him. This despite the irrefutable historical record of Esterházy’s principled anti-fascist views and actions, the pleas of the Hungarian minority and his family, and support from internationally recognized individuals such as Simon Wiesenthal who wrote on behalf of Esterházy to Dr. Peter Samko, Chief Judge of the Bratislava Court. Slovakia is even failing to take into account that the Catholic Church has begun the process to beatify Esterházy.

Not only is President Gašparovič’s statement a falsification of history, it dishonors a man of integrity and courage, is a slap in the face to Slovakia’s Hungarian minority and, hence, has become a source of tension between Hungary and Slovakia. Esterházy’s posthumous exoneration, on the other hand, would constitute a long overdue act of reconciliation, which would lead to improved relations between two NATO allies as well as serve the cause of truth and justice.

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  • TiborB

    I think that both nations are to be more empathetic to the other one.

    It is bit funny that magyars believes that slovaks were genuine allies and friends to hitler and slovaks believes the same about hungarians.

    I admit that when average a slovak evaluates the person of count Esterhazy, 90 % of consideration is his participation/relation to 1938 Wiena arbitrage and only the remaining small portion are Esterhazy’s personal characteristics and acts.
    I personally am sorry for what happend to him after 1945. In addition to being magyar, he was aristocrat and it was huge “crime” in the eyes of comunists. But you know, there was so many victims of comunism.

    As I said most slovaks have only very fuzzy idea who he was. But current affair / discussion brought some awareness of him to general public so I might say it was usefull. Also I personally learned something more about him. Moreover, I believe a person from current government coalition would choose more moderate words about Esterhazy.

    • justasking

      @Tibi,

      “As I said most slovaks have only very fuzzy idea who he was”

      It would be safe to say, that ‘most Slovaks have only a very fuzzy idea’ about history in Central Europe in general.

      • TiborB

        @justasking

        “most Slovaks have only a very fuzzy idea’ about history in Central Europe” – why do you think so? Because we see historical events from other angle?
        What is probably different in comparison to hungarians, we slovaks are less focused on own history as (you know why, of course) – we did not have own state/kingdom/whatever during long period of time. So there is not too much to focus on.

        Anyway, most peoples are indiferent to history, but I would say this is the same everywhere.

        • justasking

          @Tibi,

          “we did not have own state/kingdom/whatever during long period of time. So there is not too much to focus on”

          I guess that’s one way of looking at it…just filling in the blanks to take up space.

          ———-

          “Anyway, most peoples are indiferent to history, but I would say this is the same everywhere”

          I would have to say, that is probably one of the most saddest statements I have read on this site.

          If you don’t know where you’ve been, how the heck do you know where you’re going?

          • American in Budapest

            Justasking,

            You hate the Jews. You hate the Slovaks. And in your spare time you make up history …

      • Andy

        justasking: well, you have a good knowledge of our history, and hungarian history. You are proud magyar. But, then, why you live in Canada, and not in your beloved promised land?

        • justasking

          @Andy,

          “But, then, why you live in Canada, and not in your beloved promised land?”

          Several reasons…1) I was born and raised in Canada, parents came out in 56′ 2) Opportunity-better in Canada in my opinion…you can actually work hard and get ahead 3)Standard of living-again better in Canada in my opinion 4) Although one can find corruption in any country’s Government, seems less here in Canada 5) I’m used to a Government that works for the people and does not seem to forget that.

          Now, these are the reasons why I live in Canada; but, what exactly does this have to do with being a proud Hungarian? Or, are you suggesting that people can only be proud of their nationality if they live in the ‘motherland’ and if you move, your forfeit that right?

          • Andy

            I am just asking, justasking. But it is funny. For example. Slovak´s biggest nationalist are also people not living in Slovakia. Most of them are descendats of people who emigrated from Slovakia in 1945,1948,1968.. Actually I belive that those people, and their money stood behind breakup of Czechoslovakia. I think, people who moved abroad, trying wth their nationalism fill up some holes inside their souls…Kind of lostness. Sorry, I don´t want to be personal … 🙂

    • George Dunn

      Tibor, you are right! Hungarians and Slovaks never had (and most still don’t have) any issues with each other. The issues have been driven by opportunistic politicians. But as far judging Esterhazy over the Vienna awards, I would be careful, since many Slovaks sought to dissolve Czechoslovakia as well (and succeeded). But if Gasparovics wants to criticize him for his actions in 1938, then he should do that, and not attack him for what is clearly false reasons. He loses all his credibility.

  • Law

    And what about good known hungarian history manipulation. Try to open some hungarian school book – adoring nazi leaders, chauvinist view of other nations and minorities in Hungary. No wonder most nazis and chauvinist on square meter you can find in Hungary.
    History for Hungarians – transforming legends and myths into to history and adoring fascists and nazi. No wonder there is gypsy killings etc. Like american senators said . Hungary is most antisemitic country in Europe. Im afraid he was right.

    • justasking

      @Law,

      Good grief…talk about changing ones spots. You go from running door to door to drum up support for Jobbik and now you’re calling Hungarians anti-Semites and transforming legends and myths into history?

      But, just to give you the benefit of the doubt…please provide some examples of these transformations that you’re accusing Hungary of.

      • genuine Law

        Appears to be an impostor, I haven’t been on this site for months…

        • Curious George

          Who’re you kidding? You’re not genuine either. The real Law makes 2 spelling mistakes in every sentence.

      • American in Budapest

        Well, I guess your knowledge of Hungarian history is not strong as you claim …

        Do you deny that only 5% of university enrollees could be Jewish under laws established after WWI?

        Do you deny that limits were also placed on the number of Jews that could enter the professions?

        And you deny that Hungary prohibited sexual intercourse between Jew and Gentile in 1941?

        And I guess you have never heard of Jobbik …

        Your knowledge of Hungarian history is a joke. It’s myth.

        • justasking

          @Ugly American,

          “Well, I guess your knowledge of Hungarian history is not strong as you claim … Do you deny that only 5% of university enrollees could be Jewish under laws established after WWI? Do you deny that limits were also placed on the number of Jews that could enter the professions? And you deny that Hungary prohibited sexual intercourse between Jew and Gentile in 1941?”

          Great…now show me the cases where these laws were actually enforced?

        • George Dunn

          And WHAT does this have to do with the subject? Are you REALLY an “American” in Budapest? Sounds more like an anti-Hungarian bigot you accuse others of. Speaking of sex, remember when many US states prohibited sex between races? Didn’t stop anybody! But these were indeed horrible times and worthy of discussion, but it’s NOT the topic here. Slovakia should listen to Elie Wiesel and so should you.

      • American in Budapest

        In the first few decades of the 20th Century the Jews of Hungary numbered roughly 5 percent of the population. This minority had managed to achieve great commercial success, and Jews were disproportionately represented in the professions, relative to their numbers.

        In 1921 Budapest, 88% percent of the members of the stock exchange and 91% percent of the currency brokers were Jews, many of them ennobled. In interwar Hungary, more than half and perhaps as much as 90 percent of Hungarian industry was owned or operated by a few closely related Jewish banking families.

        Jews represented one-fourth of all university students and 43% percent at Budapest Technological University. In 1920, 60 percent of Hungarian doctors, 51 percent of lawyers, 39 percent of all privately employed engineers and chemists, 34 percent of editors and journalists, and 29 percent of musicians identified themselves as Jews by religion.[25]

        Resentment of this Jewish trend of success was widespread: Admiral Horthy himself declared that he was “an anti-Semite,” and remarked in a letter to one of his prime ministers, “I have considered it intolerable that here in Hungary everything, every factory, bank, large fortune, business, theater, press, commerce, etc. should be in Jewish hands, and that the Jew should be the image reflected of Hungary, especially abroad.”[26]

        Unfortunately for Jews they had also become, by a quirk of history, the most visible minority remaining in Hungary; the other large “non-Hungarian” populations (including Slovaks, Slovenes, Croats, and Romanians, among others) had been abruptly excised from the Hungarian population by the territorial losses at Trianon. That left Hungary’s Jews as the one ethnically separate group which could serve as a scapegoat for the nation’s ills.[21] The scapegoating began quickly. In 1920, Horthy’s government passed a “Numerus Clausus,” restricting the Jewish enrollment at universities to five percent or less, in order to reflect the Jewish population percentage.

        Anti-Jewish policies grew more repressive in the interwar period as Hungary’s leaders, who remained committed to regaining the lost territories of “Greater Hungary,” chose to align themselves (albeit warily) with the fascist governments of Germany and Italy – the international actors most likely to stand behind Hungary’s claims.[21] The inter-war years also saw the emergence of flourishing fascist groups, such as the Hungarian National Socialist Party and the Arrow Cross Party.

        • justasking

          @Ugly American,

          Racial profiling of Arabs went into full force after 9/11…why?

          Racial profiling of J*ws went into full force after Kun Bela’s Red terror…why?

          Is it right, no…but doesn’t reality suck?

          • American in Budapest

            It must suck if you’re Hungarian …

            🙂

    • Curious George

      Is Law bipolar? It explains everything.

      • justasking

        @George,

        Stick to attacking a person on what they can control…spelling mistakes, ignorance of a subject due to lack research, arrogance etc…mental disorders can not be controlled and only some, managed.

    • Big Fish

      “Hungary is most antisemitic country in Europe”
      Hungary had prior to WWII one of the largest popn of jews in europe. If hungarians were living side-by-side with their jewish neighbors, why would there be such an anti-sem sentiment. Unless, of course, hungarians experienced and witnessed something much differently than outsiders.

      Oh, btw don’t preach what American senators have to say….they are firmly in the grip of Israel and their supports. And that is the truth.

  • pterois

    Frank Koszorus Jr. is a joke.

    American Hungarian Federation?!? It’s more like Chinese Hungarian Federation is on the table for now.

    • justasking

      @pterois.

      “American Hungarian Federation?!? It’s more like Chinese Hungarian Federation ”

      How so?

    • Balint

      Frank (Ferenc) Koszorus (Sr.) was a colonel of the general staff during WWII in Hungary. He was the commander of a tank division that was established in total secrecy (hiding the very existence of the division from the Germans). The intended purpose of the tank division was to assure the success of Hungary’s bailout from her alliance with Germany. When the so-called gendarme coup (lead by Laszlo Baky, a pro-Nazi figure) was organized to defy the order of Miklos Horthy, to deport the Jews from Budapest and depose Horthy, Ferenc Koszorus volunteered to intervene with his tank division and save the Jews provided Horthy approved it. Indeed, Horthy approved it being fully aware that the existence of the tank division would no longer be a secret, and that the Germans would deploy the division on the eastern front, thereby leaving the bailout attempt without meaningful military support. The Koszorus Mission succeeded and, as expected, the Germans dispatched him along with the tank division to the eastern front. Nonetheless the Jews of Budapest (about 200,000 souls) were saved. Ironically, Ferenc Koszorus, who was on the Gestapo’s hit list and barely escaped from the Germans, had to flee Hungary because of the Soviets and communists. Had he stayed in Hungary, his fate could have been similar to those of many honorable men who fought against the Nazis, but perished by the hands of the Soviets (such as Istvan Bethlen). Ferenc Koszorus Jr. was raised in the USA, and he follows in his father’s footsteps. He has not only the knowledge, but also the moral authority to comment on this matter. As for the American Hungarian Federation, it was established in 1906 – way before WWI. Please, show a little respect – calling Ferenc Koszorus Jr. a joke was totally uncalled for and reflects more on you than on Mr. Koszorus.

  • Andy

    And here we go again. Some dummy politicians are again feeding hatred between some people in both countries. I think historic issues should be judged by the historians. Not populistick politicians.

  • Balint

    The statement from Gašparovič needs to be viewed in the context of the reaffirmation of the Beneš decrees. It is most unfortunate that the concept collective guilt is still embraced, and thus people are being judged based on their ethnicity. Gašparovič brought up the issue that Esterházy voted for implementing anti-Jewish measures (this is something he did along with the rest of the Slovak parliament). Unfortunately, this is clearly an excuse, and not a reason, coming from Gašparovič. During (and leading up to) WWII, the political reality was that anti-Jewish laws were needed to avoid direct intervention by Nazi Germany. One of the reasons Hungary was eventually occupied by Nazi Germany in March of 1944 was Hungary’s ongoing refusal of deporting the Jews. (The other reason was that German intelligence learned about Hungary’s secret negotiations with the Western Allied Powers as a bailout attempt.) Esterházy did the right thing to stand against the deportations, and this should be honored. The problem seems to be that it is in conflict with the collective guilt concept.

    • American in Budapest

      Establishing anti-Jewish laws to avoid direct intervention is called cowardice is other parts of the world.

      Hungary was one of the few European countries that buckled under to Hitler. The English didn’t establish any such laws nor did the French or Belgium or the Dutch or the Danish or the Swedish or the Finnish or the Norwegian ..

      I am sick of the Hungarians trying to make up excuses for their racism. Racism against the Hungarian Jews started long before Hitler.

      • justasking

        @Ugly American,

        “The English didn’t establish any such laws nor did the French or Belgium or the Dutch or the Danish or the Swedish or the Finnish or the Norwegian ..”

        Nor did they stop Hitler from eliminating groups of people either. So, what was they excuse for not doing something? Would you consider them cowards as well?

        • Géza

          this is so true!!

  • zsoltaros

    This op-ed by Mr. Koszorus could become a classical on erroneous argumentation. The first of his fallacies is an argumentum ad hominem (Stalin’s falsification of historical facts applies to all, not on his side about Esterházy). From there, he takes us to a lower level, by throwing mud on a Country and a people, for having a President, his antagonist, who is a former prosecutor. His argument goes like this: the President was a Stalinist, because only devout communists could serve in those capacities. Therefore, Ivan Gašparovič, the President of Slovakia, is a liar. Need we continue?

    I happen to believe that János Esterházy was a politician, who when faced with the undeniably evil intentions of fascism, acted courageously and saved many lives. But, his honor will not be protected by fallacious arguments, made in the heat of debate about the future of ethnic groups in Central Europe. Mr. Koszorus’s argumentation, unfortunately, deepens the divide. I would urge the Readers to consult the works of historians rather. In my opinion, Dr. Géza Jeszenszki’s recent writings offer a good start.

    • Bill E. Boye

      When will there be peace in the valley? When the lion lies down with the lamb and both content to be together in complete harmony – then and only then will there be peace. Never, neither for lion, nor for lamb but neither for man!

      • justasking

        @Bill E,

        “When will there be peace in the valley?”

        You’re such a Liberal!!!!

    • George Dunn

      “classical on erroneous argumentation.” What? Perhaps English is not your native language, but the analogy used is actually pretty solid. Dictatorships and empires twist history to legitimize themselves. Stalin did it, Hitler did it, Mau did it, Ceaucescu did it, Milosevic did it, Jan Slota does it. Nothing new, but sad in 21st century Europe. I left a comment below, but it seems like I am arguing with a comedian-turned-commentator on Fox News – useless. I don’t see anything in the article where the author attacks the Slovak nation collectively. That is reserved for the Benes Decrees. Perhaps that is all a lie too. I am not a Hungarian but a student of history who loves Central Europe. It seems from your name, you are Hungarian. I can see why Hungarians are where they are. If one reads history, it is evident that Hungarians and Slovaks lived side by side for a millenia. Latin was the official language in Hungarian parliament until the late 1800’s, there were plenty of Slovak nobility, and many Slovaks felt closer ties with Hungarians than with the Czechs. In fact the French were concerned over proposed plebiscites following WWI and none were held as result. But all this is not the issue. Do we agree with Esterhazy’s exoneration or not?

      • American in Budapest

        George,

        The whole tone of the article is an implicit attack on Slovakia. It’s self evident.

        The problem is that the author is a rabid Hungarian nationalist who has argued that Greater Hungary was an organic whole and that there was no justification for its dismemberment. I strong disagree. I don’t believe Hungarians deserve any special treatment. The Slovaks, Czechs, Romanians, and Croatians all the same right to self determination as Hungary.

        I have never any ability by Hungarians to critize their own culture and history. It’s largely a white wash.

        Hungarian culture is corrupt. The people are largely lazy, unimaginative, boorish, rigid, racist, etc.

        • George Dunn

          Wow, to call someone a “rabid Hungarian nationalist” is quite a statement. Intrigued, I Googled him and found a number of articles published by his organization. I get the opposite impression (this was not a surprise given your anti-Hungarian diatribes). The arguments are well thought out and without such “rabidness” you refer to. Yes, he repeatedly calls attention to human an minority rights for the Hungarian communities, but that, as I said before, should be discussed not in a Slovak vs Hungarian sense, but all sides as right vs wrong. Otherwise, comments like yours simply inflame and divert attention to the very real issues.

          In any case, I agree ethnic groups deserve (and deserved) the right to self determination – BUT, it seems the only group denied this were the Hungarians.

          Question for you:

          If we accept the right to self determination and the Wilsonian principles that were never applied after WWI,
          Where did Hungarians have the right to self-determine whether they would remain part of Hungary? Can you answer that? Well, I think Sopron, on the Austrian border was the only area.

        • Bill E. Boye

          Oh no, not a second Kertesz Akos, one is one too many!

        • Concerned guy

          Everytime I read something on this forum. (I usually lurk) here comes le mouth extraordanaire, American in Budapest. You seem to be the typical meddling George Soroseqsue/Tom Lantos type American. You are not Hungarian, YOU are American, so mind your damn business. You are the very thing that sometimes makes me ashamed of my nation. If you have such a beef against the way everything is done in Hungary, then why dont you leave. Put up or shut up. Liberal do gooder naivity at its core.

  • American in Budapest

    May be Frank write about Hungarian fascism and national extremism from 1921 through the end of WWII.

    I suppose Frank has forgotten that his beloved Hungary limited the number of Jew that could attend the universit and enter professions as well as even prohibiting sex between Jew and Gentile in 1941.

    Got to love those tolerant Hungarians …

    • George Dunn

      What a ridiculous set of comments, “American in Budapest.” Actually, as an American (and a Jew), I am embarassed. In any case, the article was not about Jewish policies or discrimination, but rather Janos Esterhazy, who, after my readings, was indeed a hero of the Holocaust who met a tragic death – his story can be that of many others who were on the right side, but suffered at the hands of both Nazis and Communists.

      I also researched Koszorus’s writings and found that he DID, in fact, address these Jewish issues and condemned them. In fact, his father led the Hungarian tank brigade that actually fought against the Nazi takover of Hungary. Toma Lantos (yes, a Jew), commemorated him as another “Hero of the Holocaust” on the floor of the US Congress.

      Rabbi Schneier of New York commented on how Hungary was the “only country to take us in after Krystallnacht. Not even the United States would have us.” Yes, while many governments did terrible things, Hungary did, in fact, resist. Another piece of inconvenient history. I read more of Koszorus’s writings and became aware of many pieces of history I never heard of.

      Now, off to read some more.

      • Balint

        George, With so many revealing clashes at this site, it is refreshing to read your comments. I just wanted to say: thank you.

  • George Dunn

    Interesting how NONE of these commentators deal with the issue. This is not a Hungarian vs. Slovak issue, but rather a right vs. wrong issue. Zsoltaros, I do not know who you are, but your argument must be related to another article. Do you agree with Gasparovics, or is he indeed a liar? If he is a liar, is it on purpose or a result of learning a false history? This was only the introduction. The author is making a valid point regarding the complexities of post WWI and WWII and the use of false history by dictators and successor states to legitimize themselves. In many ways, with their “language law” and recent confirmation of the horrific Benes decrees, this continues today in Slovakia. But that is all an aside… the article is about Janos Esterhazy and Slovakia’s refusal to rehabilitate him. Why is that controversial? Research his name and learn a little. If we base or decisions on facts, perhaps we CAN have peace in the valley Bill E. Boye!

    • TiborB

      OK, so to the topic.

      I wonder who can say that a person is „war criminal“. If it is decision of a court, than which court said it? Russian and Czechoslovak as well? If it was court decision and the decision is still effective, Gasparovic only said what is formally correct.
      But if term „war criminal“ is only informal identification, then I would be more careful with its use.

      I agree, Esterhazy is not to be in the same category as nazi leaders. But he is traitor of czechoslovakia. If he was citizen of czechoslovakia (was he, correct?) then he is guilty for steps to strip south teritories of slovakia and he also fought for returning whole teritory of slovakia to hungary.

      Also remember that hungary ended war as defeated country and Czechoslovakia was in winners camp. (Slovak state ceased to exist altogether).

      • George Dunn

        Then accuse him of that and not falsely. But I still do not understand how we are going off topic – do you agree with Gasparovics’ outrageous comments?

  • vdx

    Yes, I was wondering why begin an article with a “master of historical falsification” Stalin and not e.g. with Hitlers’s plot at Gleiwith, but then it occured to me that one cannot blame the historical ally of his wrongdoings. One then couldn’t celebrate the Vienna award properly.

    Hungarian officials were lately full of educative messages relating to the “martyrdom” and “humanism” of Esterházy. When some time ago I instead asked about the Kamianets-Podilskyi massacre (occured 70 years ago), I was told that the common knowledge is that under Horthy no deportations of Jews occured. Clearly the hotter issue of martyred Hungarian hero takes a precedence here. It kinds of remind me of a sentence of the man mentioned above: “The death of one man is a tragedy, the death of millions is a statistic”. We could as well transribe it with the name of martyred Hungarian hero in place.

    At the time I was also curious how it’s possible that such elevated man like Esterházy: “man of integrity and courage” with “principled anti-fascist views”, could have voted for other anti-semitic laws passed by the Council of Slovak state earlier? “An unsung hero of anti-Nazi resistance” didn’t raise his voice against the Jewish codex copying antisemitic laws of Nazi Germany. He didn’t have problems confessing about his anti-jewish orientation in defence of his “brave act”. Humanism really comes by strange definition sometimes.

    Hungarian president also had some educative message few weeks ago. In a list he was appealing to the “common values” of fellow European countries. It was at the time when Slovakia was commemorating an anniversary of Slovak National Uprising.
    I was wondering at the time what Hungary commemorates in relation to the end of WWII? 8 May which is celebrated as the Day of victory over fascism or the Liberation day in lots of European countries clearly isn’t on the list of Hungary’s public holiday. I wonder what is the reason.

  • Reverie

    You can get so wrapped up in history that you forget about the present and thereby wave goodbye to the future.
    Hungary has certainly been carved up land-wise with the Trianon trauma; and only ten million people within its current borders: ageing and dissolute.
    Nevertheless, Hungary is still head and shoulders above many of its neighbors in terms of art, music, and literature.
    History is interesting but real life is better – especially if you care to live it with a view to contributing something to the society that you hold dear! Blowing a trumpet from some hinterland might create a notion of “belonging” but, in reality, it is only a daydream that rises like so much hot air and disappears without trace as does the morning mist…

    • justasking

      “History is interesting but real life is better – especially if you care to live it with a view to contributing something to the society that you hold dear!”

      What about if that society does not care about what you have to offer?

      ——

      “Blowing a trumpet from some hinterland might create a notion of “belonging” but, in reality, it is only a daydream that rises like so much hot air and disappears without trace as does the morning mist…”

      What happens if the desire is not one of ‘belonging’, but that of passing on traditions, pride and history to future generations as it was passed onto them?

      Instead of being a morning mist, one could look at it as pollution trapped underneath a temperature inversion…

    • American in Budapest

      Ah, the famous Hungarian arrogance. A colleague of mine described as “Poor and Proud”.

      When are you Hungarians going to admit your anti-semitism destroyed your nation.

      Hungary has never recovered from the loss of the Jewish population – they were the commercial and intellectual backbone of the country.

  • Joseph Kolopos

    This article is right that Slovakia was an ally and client state of Nazi Germany. However, I think it should have mentioned that Hungary allied with Nazi Germany as well. I am not proud of that fact but it is the truth.

    • justasking

      @Kolopos,

      “However, I think it should have mentioned that Hungary allied with Nazi Germany as well. I am not proud of that fact but it is the truth”

      Given Hungary’s past experience with Communism (you remember Kun Bela…aka Red Terror?) what choice would you have made if your were Horthy…Hitler or Stalin? Keeping in mind that hindsight is 20/20…..

      • American in Budapest

        I would choose none of them. You don’t have to collaborate. It’s cowardly.

        You still trying to make excuses as opposed to showing long over due contrition.

        But of course, contrition is foreign to Hungarian culture.

        • Balint

          Contrition is so foreign to Hungarian culture that it is even a line in the Hungarian National Anthem’s first verse, which is expanded upon in subsequent verses (“Haj, de buneink miatt gyult harag kebledben…”). Please cite any other nation’s national anthem that speaks of guilt. It also occurred to me that if you have so much contempt and hate for Hungarians, why do you (as an American – with clear difficulties using English properly) live in Budapest? You could relocate to a number of places that would be more appealing to you.

  • justasking

    @Ugly American,

    “You hate the Jews. You hate the Slovaks”

    Actually, I don’t hate anybody….takes up too much energy. I admittedly can not stand liars and manipulators.

    Oh, and I think that you’re a waste of skin….but I don’t hate you, your simply not worthy.

    —–

    “And in your spare time you make up history …”

    No, I leave that up to you Z*onists and the Slovaks 🙂

  • Reverie

    Living is easy with eyes closed misunderstanding all you see…. (John Lennon).

  • passeneger

    Hungary was ally of Nazi germans.
    It s a fact. No need to look for excuses or explanation.

    • justasking

      @passenger,

      “It s a fact. No need to look for excuses or explanation”

      Yes, life is so simple…the choice between a gut shot (Russians) and a head shot (Germans)…what to do?

      You seem to have all the answers, what would you have done?

    • Andy

      I think that Hungary and Slovakia – we have nothing to reproach to each other. As well Hungary, that Slovaks were good comrades of Hitler´s Germany. But, I have to say, that it was kind of Hitler genius. For example. When Slovak president Tiso visited Germany in march 1939, Hitler inform him about his plat to occupy Czechoslovaia., then Ribbentrop entered room with telegram that Hungarians army is ready to invade Slovakia. Later on Hitler offer Tiso german´s protection if Slovakia will tear off from Czechlovakia..

  • justasking

    @Andy,

    “I am just asking, justasking. But it is funny. For example. Slovak´s biggest nationalist are also people not living in Slovakia. Most of them are descendats of people who emigrated from Slovakia in 1945,1948,1968.. Actually I belive that those people, and their money stood behind breakup of Czechoslovakia…I think, people who moved abroad, trying wth their nationalism fill up some holes inside their souls…Kind of lostness. Sorry, I don´t want to be personal ”

    I’m not taking this personal, but listen to what I have to say, as a person who is a product immigrants, regardless of the where and the whys.

    Traditionally, people who leave their ‘homeland’ is not because they want to; but, because they feel they HAVE too. When you have this scenario, with it comes a boatload of guilt, like it or not.

    They’re not lost; but they do get lonely for home. Because of that, you get devotion, appreciation, love, desire, and a drive to uphold whatever they can regarding their traditions, culture and language etc, so it is never forgotten by future generations.

    Do not mix up the love for ones country and it’s people, with politics. It matters not, which side one might sway; but, the desire for that country and it’s people to flourish.

    My first language was Hungarian (for obvious reasons) my second English. My parents always installed upon my sisters and I, the respect and love for the country who stood up for them and beside them, in their time of need. They also installed upon us to never forget where we came from.

    Because of this, you get a totally different upbringing. Your not fully Canadian, because the ties to the old country are so strong; and, your not full Hungarian because the ties to the new country are so strong.

    It has nothing to do with fulfilling holes and all to do with no letting something die out.

    As for the break-up of Czechoslovakia, it was inevitable. The North American monies sent to Slovakia, made it possible, faster yet.

    So, instead of insulting these individuals and accusing them of trying to fill up some sort of ‘lostness’, thank your lucky stars that you have people with money who believe in you enough to help you in anyway they can, even from a distance.

    • Andy

      justasing, I will tell you little secret :)It has nothing to do with Esterhazy, but anyway… Breaking of Czechoslovakia was done without public support in both countries. There was no public referendum done. Because if yes, no way that we will split. Currently, Gasparovic, old communist, is a guy who was one of the main politicians in process destroying of Czechoslovakia. And the main reson was not because … of independency but to get opportunity to make decison about privatization of state owned companies. Lately those comapnies were given some mafia members and close Gasparovic and Meciar friends for just like 1€. Untill now lot´s of Slovaks not agree the way how was splitting done, and why it was done.
      Gasparovic si not my prezident, Gasparovic is not my speaker at all…

      • justasking

        @Andy,

        “I will tell you little secret It has nothing to do with Esterhazy”

        I never said it did.

    • American in Budapest

      I do believe you are Hungarian because your inability to criticize your own culture and nation is the signature of Hungarian culture.

      • Andy

        Hahahaha… Nice, American boy. I think that all central Europe – ex East Europe countries are in same situation. Political elites are highly corrupted and irresponsible. Do you Hungarians realy think, that is that only your problem? Tha only you have such difficulties? No …. Czech republic, Romania, Ukraina, Poland, Hungary, Slovakia… we are on one ship 🙂

      • justasking

        @Ugly,

        So, what’s your take on the US turning away ships filled with J*ws escaping from Europe during WWII? Why did the US wait so long to stop Hitler, knowing full well what he was doing to the ‘chose people’…you know, the moral obligation part?

        • justasking

          oooppsss! another typo…chosen people

  • American in Budapest

    Many Europeans fought the Nazis.

    The Yugoslavians didn’t collaborate.

    May be the Hungarians lacked the balls to do the right thing.

    • justasking

      @Ugly,

      “Many Europeans fought the Nazis”

      They sure did…and not one of them stopped these all-inclusive resorts.

    • George Dunn

      As a military historian, I must say these comments are frighteningly ignorant. The Hungarians were the ONLY force allied with Germany who fought (and died) fighting against them (after Germany invaded Hungarya almost at the end of the war due to Hungarian resistance over the final solution). Hungary allied with Germany for one reason only – regaining unjustly deprived territory. Hungary was a haven for Jews (and many others) for centuries. “Yugoslavs didn’t collaborate” – really?

      • justasking

        @Dunn,

        “As a military historian, I must say these comments are frighteningly ignorant”

        Just jump back there a bit guy, although I am not a ‘military historian’, I do and can read. Nothing in your post has said anything more or less, than what I have posted over the past couple of years…it all tends to fall on deaf ears unfortunately.

        ——-

        “Hungary was a haven for J*ws”

        I know….we were call Magyar Isra*l during that time to be exact.

        ————-

        Is it me…or finally is this site getting some traffic again?

    • mzperx

      You just proved again to be be an idiot: Have you ever heard of the Chetnics and the Ustasha?

      • justasking

        @mzperx,

        “Have you ever heard of the Chetnics and the Ustasha?”

        No, I never have! Thanks for the info….

  • olga

    @ American in BP

    I finally figured out the difference between you and the rabid disgusting anti-Semites who used to inhabit this website.

    They did not choose to make their living in Israel so despite my complete distaste and contempt for them I have to admit they had more class than you have.

    BTW, just keep defending the guy who tramples on the memory of Esterhazy who the Catholic Church and Israel consider a hero for his anti-Nazi stance- time to get rid of your Hungarian table cloth because nothing that’s Hungarian should be associated with you, not even a Vizsla

    • Bill E. Boye

      God bless all Vizslas!

    • George Dunn

      WOW – now THAT’s a good comment

  • M.R.

    Hmm… Reading that my president’s (NB: I am not supporter of this man) “falsification of history fans flames of ethnic hatred” is quite surprising. I don’t know whether Mr. Koszorus ever visited Slovakia or to how many Hungarians from Slovakia did he talk to.

    I come from a very city mentioned in the article, and since it is inhabited by both Hungarians and Slovaks, I have a lot of Hungarian friends since my childhood. I assure you there is no “ethnic hatred” between us, and president Gasparovic is being mostly laughed at for his poor speech qualities.

  • Geza Cseri

    Esterházy’s posthumous exoneration, the rescinding of the Benes Decrees and the elimination of the laguage law are the absolutely minimum essential steps long overdue that Gasparovic must understand and the Slovak government must undertake. If these steps are not taken, the relatioship will deteriorate into more than just words as Slovakia is fanning the flame of hatred. The clock is working against Gasparovic and Slovakia as NATO cannot tolerate too much longer his government beligerent behavior sowing discord in the region and to NATO as a whole.It is Slovakia’s government responsobiliy to make correct the destortion and the oppressive measures of the past and live in peace and harmony as the two peoples have for 1000 years.

    Geza Cseri
    Former Science and Technology Advisor
    to Supreme Allied Commanders of NATO

    • Andy

      “If these steps are not taken, the relatioship will deteriorate into more than just words as Slovakia is fanning the flame of hatred. Rscinding of Benes Decrets? So is that kind of threat? So, for sure this is not going happened. So what will next step from former science and technology advisor? Are you going cannonade us? Uf but is this world you are living in, mr. Cseri?

      • justasking

        @Andy,

        “Decrets? So is that kind of threat? So, for sure this is not going happened. So what will next step from former science and technology advisor?

        Stop being a horses ass and mocking the man. What are your credentials?

        Why can’t the Benes Decrees and language law be rescinded and what would be the fall out if they were?

        • Blazon

          “what would be the fall out if they were?”
          That’s a good question. I think nothing would change.
          Geza Cseri would be still dreaming about war on Slovakia and you’d be still posting tons of anti-Slovak posts here. For blind nationalist like yourself this issue has become something of a culture, the way you spend your time. Slovaks can’t take that off you no matter what they do.

          • justasking

            @Blazon,

            “Geza Cseri would be still dreaming about war on Slovakia”

            Do you think he got the idea from Slota?
            ——

            “and you’d be still posting tons of anti-Slovak posts here.”

            Hey, I’m just returning the favour to those Slovak posters who submit anti-Hungarian posts. Tell me about an English speaking Slovakian political site similar to this one, and I’ll do it there.
            ———-

            “For blind nationalist like yourself this issue has become something of a culture, the way you spend your time. Slovaks can’t take that off you no matter what they do.”

            Remind me again, whose Presidents comments are being discussed?

  • Geza Cseri

    Sorry for the SPELLING Errors

    laguage should be language

    beligerent should be belligerent

    responsobiliy should be resposibility

  • Curious George

    @Former-Advisor The clock is working against Gasparovic and Slovakia as NATO cannot tolerate too much longer his government beligerent behavior sowing discord in the region and to NATO as a whole.

    Is that Nato’s position or yours?

  • Paprika King

    Koszorus’ op-ed was extremely well-written and compelling. The criticisms are ad hominem (against Frank) or more like ad patriam (against Hungary). The simple question in his piece is whether Gasparovic was wrong to label Esterhazy a follower of Hitler when the historical evidence clearly shows otherwise. The bulk of the criticisms are not only wrong, but beside the point.

    • American in Budapest

      Not really. All you have to do go to his website to realize you are dealing with a nationalist nut case.

      • justasking

        @American,

        ” realize you are dealing with a nationalist nut case”

        I would rather be known as a lunatic than a ticking time bomb!

  • Csaba K. Zoltani

    For over a thousand years, ethnic groups have lived peacefully, with very few exceptions, within the Hungarian Kingdom. Ethnic enmity is a fairly new phenomenon of Lilliputians who came to power after its breakup and who are intoxicated by nationalism. By its inaction to these provocations, it is also a sign that the European Union still has a long way to go before it can claim to having devised a framework where diverse national groups can coexist.

    A political entity that has Benes-like Decrees on its books, as well as the EU that does not take decisive action for its removal, is a blight on our civilization.

    • justasking

      @Csabi,

      “A political entity that has Benes-like Decrees on its books, as well as the EU that does not take decisive action for its removal, is a blight on our civilization”

      From your lips to God’s ears

  • American in Budapest

    It is a myth that these ethnic groups lived peacefully for over a thousand years. This is the national propraganda that they teach in Hungarian secondary schools.

    As a Frenchman who lives in Budapest said to me recently, \Hungarian history is myth writ large\.

    • George Dunn

      American in Budpest AKA Faux News – care to cite any examples? Have you read ANYTHING? Of coures, listening to a Frenchman about Hungarian history is like listening to a right wing Turk talk about Armenia. So, I now better understand where you are coming from… You go AIB! We need more ignorant Americans in the world to make life funnier!

    • justasking

      @American,

      “It is a myth that these ethnic groups lived peacefully for over a thousand years.”

      Is that similar to the myth that you claimed Poland’s border ran alongside Hungary’s in 1956…that kind of myth?

  • Egalite

    Well, AIB, let’s balance things up, shall we? Here goes:
    “In the year 1940, France’s armies were *defeated by Germany and in turn had their government driven from Paris. Marshal Phillipe Petain was named prime minister, and arranged an armistice with Germany that allowed them to occupy more than half of France. Petain created a new government in a spa city of central France, named Vichy. This new government implemented a variety of anti-Jewish measures, and worked in partnership with the Germans for the rest of the war. From 1940 to 1944.
    (Not *”defeat” but “capitulation”!)
    I also believe Hungarians have the French to thank for Trianon!

  • Geza Cseri

    TO: Curious George. That is my position as least at this point in time.

    To: Csaba K. Zoltani. You hit the nail right on the head.
    Hungarians have no quarrel with the Slovaks only with the extreme nationalisism of the government at the expense of the ethnic inhabitants primarily the Hungarians.

  • TiborB

    „extreme nationalisism of the government „ – which government – current one? Do you mean it?

    Believe me, I would be the first person to protest if our government were wasting time with oppressing minorities, we have more serious problems that need to be addressed… 🙂

    • George Dunn

      Dear Tibor – sadly, the Slovak government IS wasting time oppressing minorities. See a few examples regarding the Slovak Lanuage Law (pretty pathetic); the 2009 confirmation of the Benes decrees; or the village of Szelmenc.

      • TiborB

        We had elections last year, so if you refer to something that happened in 2009 – this was previous – Fico’s government.

        And I dont know about that village – I just found wiki about Veľké Slemence / Nagyszelmenc, but if it the village you mean, I can not see what you mean here.

      • M.R.

        Can you please explain to me how the Benes decrees (confirmed or unconfirmed) oppress the Hungarian minority in Slovakia today?

        FYI, the provisions of language law were softened and there was a new minority-protection amendment law adopted (making the population threshold which triggers minority language protection lower) by the new Slovak government. But for some it’s easier to talk/focus on 60-100 years old issues regarding Esterhazy/Benes/Trianon than the current facts on the ground that affect the actual co-habitation of Hungarians and Slovaks today.

        • George Dunn

          Are you serious? How many reasons would you like? If the United States confirmed the Japanese American internments during WWII, I would hope you would see that as an issue. The US, rather, acknowledges that this was a mistake. Slovakia COULD do the same. The Benes Decrees were far worse. Confirming the decrees also sends a signal that reconciliation is not important to Slovakia.

          So, what is YOUR threshold to “allow” a minority language to be spoken? “Softening” a discrimintory, oppressive, and, if I were Slovak, embarrassing law is hardly progress! In fact, the law could have been worse as an early amendment tried to ban the use of Hungarian in churches!

          Hungarians and Slovaks should stand up as allies against these idiot nationalists on BOTH sides. Stop being defensive. I cannot make excuses for George Bush and Iraq! 🙂

          Again, this is NOT about Slovak vs Hungarian, but RIGHT vs WRONG!

          • George Dunn

            And, of course, confirming the decrees negatively affects a citizen’s right for adequate compensation for seized land, property, and other possessions.

  • George Dunn

    Touche Bill E. Boye!!

  • Bystander

    Just thought I’d come back for a quick visit, first page I hit… wouldn’t ya know it? Same ole same ole!

    But the most painful statement on this page is this:

    “… Hungary prohibited sexual intercourse between Jew and Gentile in 1941”

    Aaaarggh now THAT’s a *stinger*!!! Anyone who knows us Jews knows about our hankerin’ for those shiksa women…

    Well I guess I’ll be back at some point, nice to see that in a topsy-turvy world some things, like this site, never change!

  • Molehandles

    Bystander. If you do not work, live, or play, in Hungary, how do you expect to change things, let alone the mindset of the armchair comfortable, on this site?
    BTW. How is your Hungarian progressing?

  • Bystander

    Hi Molehandles,
    As much as I’ve really *wanted* to be more involved with Hungarian things the last couple months I’ve been so busy I admit I’ve really neglected keeping up with the news and I’m afraid I’m quickly forgetting what little language skills I learned. I’m already starting to confuse my “Zs” and “Sz”s which isn’t good! Thanks for the prodding, hopefully I’ll be back to things-Hungarian soon, I actually miss it here, which is saying something…
    Take care, hope all is well w/everyone.

  • Balint

    There was and is anti-Semitism in Hungary, as well as in any other country that I have had experience with. The numerus clausus was ugly, even though it was not even mentioning the Jews by name (it was a quota system applicable to all nationalities based on their proportion in the population – the Jews were negatively affected as the only overrepresented population). At the same time, only the third anti-Jewish law was totally racist. Hitler was angered by the previous anti-Jewish laws of Hungary because they defined who counted as Jewish in such a way that many Hungarian Jews remained unaffected (i.e., the definition differed from the Nuremberg Laws). The third one was utterly racists, and indeed banned sexual relationship and marriage between Jews and non-Jewish Hungarians. Yet, people managed to get around the law, and get married. Those “racist Hungarians” – priests and ministers – issued tremendous numbers of fake baptismal certificates. And other “racist Hungarians” got married with Jews even under these circumstances. Have you ever noticed that Jews and Hungarians had significant percentage of “mixed marriages”? And as this is a matter of fact, how is this compatible with the generalization that “the Hungarians” are racist? But since you are an American, let me ask you, how would you feel if someone would label all Americans racist for the Holocaust of the Native Americans, or the slavery and subsequent discrimination against African Americans? To jolt your memory, the third anti-Jewish law of Hungary was passed in August of 1941. A similar law, banning marriage between blacks and whites was passed in Virginia, USA, in 1924 (Racial Integrity Act of 1924). This legislation was not done under threat of invasion by a foreign country – so you can safely say that it was not indicating cowardice, but pure racism. This law was repealed by the US Supreme Court in 1967, i.e., 22 years after the end of WWII (Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967)). Whether you like to admit or not, you are using double standard. I am not here to justify racism in any shape or form. It was wrong in 1920 (Numerus Clausus, Hungary), 1924 (Racial Integrity Act, Virginia, USA), 1941 (Third Jewish Law, Hungary), and after WWII (in the USA, until 1967). Of course, that time society in general approached racial and ethnic differences very different from today, and it is easy to criticize Hungarians by 1) applying the present-day US “standard” to pre-WWII Hungary; and 2) doing so out of context, neglecting that other nations (including the US) were just as racists. Your comment is rather vindictive, but when you are pointing a finger at someone, remember that three fingers will point toward yourself.

  • Balint

    Thank you for your comment. My first point is that you need to read my comment a bit more carefully. I stated that the anti-Jewish laws were needed to avoid direct intervention by Nazi Germany – and that statement was about Slovakia, not Hungary (even though it was applicable to Hungary as well). And that is how far Esterházy was willing to go. My second point is about cowardice. This was mostly addressed by others. I would also add, that (except for the Finnish) there was no imminent threat from Stalin on their other side, whereas Hungary was between a rock and the hard place. The only country outside the Soviet Union at that time, which had experience with the Red Terror of communists was Hungary. Protecting the Hungary from the communists was a primary agenda starting with 1919. Thirdly, I understand that you are “sick of the Hungarians trying to make up excuses for their racism.” I understand it more than you would like. Your usage of the English language gives subtle but undeniable clues about your prejudice. You used the definitive article. “The Hungarians” – not just “Hungarians”. You see, I am sick of Hungarians trying to make up excuses for their racism. I.e., those Hungarians who are racists. You are, on the other hand, sick of THE Hungarians. And your comment insinuates that all Hungarians are racists – just like the collective guilt declared by the Beneš decrees.

  • Molehandles

    Bystander. Excuses…again? Sometimes this site has almost sunk into oblivion and then revives itself like a phoenix from the ashes. I wish Hungary could do the same.
    When I walk through my village each day and say hello to people and experience the friendly atmosphere and goodwill it runs counter to everything I read on these pages.
    BTW. S=SZ and S is pronounced (Sh) as in ship
    Ten dollars, please!

  • Bystander

    Thanks Molesy… My language skills have deteriorated!

    Can I pay you in Euros? 😉

  • George Dunn

    I guess I’ll jump in to the off-topic posts too!

    Interesting how today’s Google Doodle featured Albert Szentgyorgyi. To paraphrase an article in Christian Science Monitor – “In 1937, he won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discovering vitamin C. What did he do with the prize money? He gave it away. The Soviets had invaded Finland in November of 1939, sending close to 1 million soldiers and thousands of tanks. Early the next year, Szent-Gyorgyi offered all of his winnings to the Finnish resistance.

    But the doctor also had more local concerns. When fascism swept into Hungary, Szent-Gyorgyi became a resistance fighter. He used his wealth to help Jewish friends flee the reach of anti-Semites. Once World War II broke out, Hungary aligned itself with the Nazis. Yet, the country’s prime minister wanted to conduct secret negotiations with the Allied forces. He sent Szent-Gyorgyi to carry out these talks. The doctor scheduled a scientific talk in Cairo – a front for this covert mission. But the Nazis uncovered the scheme and arrested him. Miraculously, Szent-Gyorgyi escaped. He spent the rest of the war on the run, hiding from the Gestapo.

    After the war, Hungary was still under the close watch of a foreign power – this time communism. Szent-Gyorgyi entered politics, becoming a member of parliament. But he grew frustrated with the Soviet influence over Hungary. In 1947, he moved to the United States, where he lived and studied until his death in 1986. He would have been 118 today.”

  • George Dunn

    Hungary actively tried to go to the allied side. But they were already sold to the Soviets. I Googled and found this interesting list of well-known Hungarian Holocaust heroes:

    More Hungarian Holocaust Heroes:
    – Esterhazy
    – Szent-Gyorgyi
    – General Vilmos Nagybaczoni-Nagy who upon being appointed minister of defense by the Kallay government took measures to end the gross abuse threatening the lives of Jews and others in the auxiliary labor force;
    – Tibor Baranszky who, as secretary to Monsignor Angelo Rotta, the Vatican’s ambassador to Budapest, saved many lives by distributing protective letters to Jews on forced marches and elsewhere;
    – Roman Catholic Priest Ferenc Kallo who gave Jews life‐saving certificates of baptism and who was killed by the Arrow Cross on October 29, 1944;
    – Jozsef Antall Senior, who as a member of the ministry of internal affairs for civilian refugees gave refuge to and thereby saved Jews and Poles and who enjoyed the support and confidence of Minister of Interior Ferenc Keresztes‐Fischer and Prime Ministers Pal Teleki and after his death Miklos Kallay.
    – Prince-Primate Jusztinian Seredi, Bishop Laszlo Ravasz of the Reformed Church and Istvan Bethlen who communicated protests to Regent Horthy in 1944 against deportations following Nazi Germany’s occupation of Hungary; and
    – Col. Ferenc Koszorus, posthumously promoted to the rank of General by Prime Minister Antall after the fall of Communism, who volunteered his services and mobilized the 1st Armored Division under his command to militarily intervene on July 5, 1944 to stop Laszlo Baky, a secretary of state in the Ministry of Interior for “Jewish Affairs,” from deporting the
    approximately 200,000 plus Jews from Budapest.
    – Dr. Hans von Dohnanyi, another son of Erno von Dohnanyi and brother-in-law of reknowned anti-Nazi pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer. Fellow conspirator and close friend of General Hans Oster. In 1929 his outstanding legal talent lands him the job of Special Assistant to the Reich Minister of Justice at the age of 27. In the 1930s, Dohnanyi uses his post to secretly procure files on Hitler and other Nazi officials to be used to prove their criminal misconduct in office; and in Hitler’s case, medical files from military psychiatrists showing evidence of mental hysteria induced by gas attacks during World War I.

    He played a major role in helping to plan the September 1938 and October 1939 coup attempts. In August 1939 he becomes special project chief in the Abwehr. He forwards reports from Dietrich Bonhoeffer about deportation of Jews to the Army High Command in the hope it may persuade the top brass to protest. Backed by Abwehr Chief Admiral Wilhelm Canaris, Dohnanyi and Deputy Abwehr Chief Oster put together Operation U-7, a secret Abwehr mission to save Jews from Hitler’s death camps. On April 5, 1943, he was arrested after Gestapo discovers operation U-7 during a raid on Dohnanyi’s office. Gestapo discovers Dohnanyi’s compiled information on Nazi crimes after July 20, 1944. On April 8, 1945, Dohnanyi is hanged by the SS in Sachsenhausen concentration camp along with Canaris, Oster, and Bonhoeffer.

    • Bill E. Boye

      Mr. Dunn, Just a quick comment, I also know of a gentile who had helped save orphaned Jewish children in Budapest when the monster Szalasi was in power. This man was Count Forgach-Waldbott Ferenc (he worked independent of Raoul Whallenberg) and he lost his life saving the Jewish orphans. His sister Baroness Hedwig Waldbott lives in Canada and with her youngest brother the late Baron Laszlo Waldbott paid for a commemorative plaque and had it installed in the Town of Tolcsva, Hungary reminding all people of the cruelty caused by the fascits against the Hungarian speaking Jews in the wine region of Tokay. According to Baroness Waldbott, the Jews and Gentiles lived in harmony for several hundred years in Zemplen County. In fact the neighboring City of Satoraljaujhely, the city made famous by Kossuth, Kazincy, the Wonder Rabbi Teitelbaum Mozes (1759-1841)responsible for the spread of the Hasidic movement in Hungary, has two big Jewish cemeteries, both well maintained by the populace! Each year several hundred Hasidic Jews visit his grave which is located in the center of town. The Town of Mad, located near Tolcsva, had a Rabbi Training School and also a huge Jewish population! Another plaque is to be found at Satoraljaujhely’s railroad station commemorating and designating the station as the place where the Jews were put on the trains to Poland and the various death camps! Alas, the vast majority of Jews did not return to this beautiful wine growing area of Hungary for most were killed by the Austrian Eichmann and as a result there are very few functioning Synagogues.

    • Bill E. Boye

      Mr. Dunn, I also know of a Gentile who had helped save orphaned Jewish children in Budapest when the monster Szalasi was in power. This man was Count Forgach-Waldbott Ferenc (he worked independent of Raoul Whallenberg) and he lost his life saving the Jewish orphans. His “safe house” was his home in Budapest and his friends also used their homes to hide the children. I know his sister well and we often talk about his achievments and what he could have contributed after the war had communisim not raised its’ ugly head.

    • Viking

      I see you missed Baron/Father Apor Vilmos in your list
      This is the Catholic description of his life:

      http://www.katolikus.hu/hun-saints/apor_en.html

      “It must be admitted that the first anti-Jewish law was not only due to German pressure, but was also intended to reduce Hungarian domestic tensions and, more particularly, to improve the situation of the Christian middle classes”
      .
      Father Apor Vilmos fought, like many Christian Priests of different congregations, for the “Jews” that had converted to their church, then for Christians the Baptism is the most important thing, regardless of which “race” you do belong to
      The Nazis and their Hungarian followers were anti-Christians, then they saw the Baptism of a “Jew” as unimportant, the person was still a “Jew” and hence the subject of persecution
      The act of saving converted “Jews” was not an Hungarian thing, it happened all over Europe, but the act was mostly limited to try to save those who had already converted into Christianity. The Swedish State Church for example managed to “import” 100 children during WWII from Austria, that the Nazis deemed being Jewish. Only 7 of those children stated they were of Mosaic Religion, the rest were happy Christian pork-eaters, but would have followed their left-behind parents to the gas-chambers, if not have been sent off to Sweden
      In Sweden the children, except the 7, were placed among Christian families

  • Bill E. Boye

    The City of Miskolc has an active Jewish population which is in this area.

  • Nightingale

    My goodness what a bubbling cauldron Hungary’s history is and enter at your own peril!
    Here is my interesting snippet from the wicket:
    “The Hungarian state was restored by the Entente powers, helping Admiral Horthy into power in November 1919. On 1 December 1919 the Hungarian delegation was officially invited to the Versailles Peace Conference; however the new borders of Hungary were nearly finalised without the presence of the Hungarians. During prior negotiations, the Hungarian party, along with the Austrian, advocated the American principle of self-determination: that the population of disputed territories should decide by free plebiscite to which country they wished to belong. This view did not prevail for long, as it was overlooked by the decisive French and British delegates. The Allies drafted the outline of the new frontiers with little or no regard to the historical, cultural, ethnic, geographic, economic and strategic aspects of the region. Although the countries that were the main beneficiaries of the treaty partially noted the issues, the Hungarian delegates tried to draw attention to them. Their views were disregarded by the Allied representatives. As a result, problems created by the territorial boundaries contributed to regional destabilisation and the outbreak of World War II.”

  • Bill E. Boye

    I am trying to get through with a reply to Mr. Dunn and I am not at all successful for my comment is awaiting moderation???

    • justasking

      @Bill E,

      “I am trying to get through with a reply to Mr. Dunn and I am not at all successful for my comment is awaiting moderation???”

      It means that whatever you wrote contains ‘trigger’ words, and will be held up until Erik looks at it to make sure it meets with his approval/the sites standards.

      If it does, it gets posted later, and will acknowledge the actual time you submitted it.

      If it does not meet with his approval/site standards, it gets tossed into the bin via his gigantic ‘delete’ button.

      • Bill E. Boye

        So, who is Erik and what the hell are ‘trigger’ words?

        • Bill E. Boye

          No fabrication involved in my replies, nothing to scrutinize.

        • justasking

          @Bill E,

          I don’t know if he owns this site, but I was told long ago that he was the it’s manager. I noticed that when he makes comments, he gets the pink back ground.

          I don’t know what the proper name for it is. I call it ‘trigger’ words, because when certain words are used, I noticed it ‘triggers’ the ‘you comment is awaiting moderation’ thingy to pop up.

          So far I’ve noticed that if you type in J*w, with an e instead of the asterix…this happens.

          You might want to ask Erik directly. You could ask Vandor as well, he might know….he comes across to me as a computer/computer program geek.

          • Bill E. Boye

            Thanks Justasking, I appreciate your input.

  • justasking

    “Geza Cseri would be still dreaming about war on Slovakia”

    Do you think he got the idea from Slota?
    ——

    “and you’d be still posting tons of anti-Slovak posts here.”

    Hey, I’m just returning the favour to those Slovak posters who submit anti-Hungarian posts. Tell me about an English speaking Slovakian political site similar to this one, and I do it there.
    ———-

    “For blind nationalist like yourself this issue has become something of a culture, the way you spend your time. Slovaks can’t take that off you no matter what they do.”

    Remind me again, whose Presidents comments are being discussed?

  • justasking

    sorry, above post for Blazon

  • justasking

    @Bill E.

    “Thanks Justasking, I appreciate your input”

    Not an issue, and please call me Zsuzsa

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